Veterinary surgery is branch of surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery.

Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy), etc. are performed by Veterinary Surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery [neuters (spay and castration), minor mass excisions, etc.], some also perform additional procedures.

The goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in pets and in farm animals. In the former, situation is a bit like in human beings, and more and more complex operations are performed, with sophisticated anaesthesia techniques. In the latter, the cost of the operation must not exceed the economic benefit in surgically treating the illness.